The Ultrasound and Submarines

You often hear people using the phrase “as blind as a bat” but if bats could talk, would they criticize us for being “as deaf as a human”? We may think we’re good at hearing things but our ears can detect only a relatively narrowband of frequencies.

Conventional ultrasound can trace its roots to a form of militarized SONAR developed heavily in the period between World War I and II and was use as an alternative to conventional RADAR methods for detecting submerged vehicles.

Crystals of quartz vibrate very fast when we pass electricity called piezoelectricity. As they vibrate, they pushand pull the air around them, producing ultrasound waves. These devices are known as piezoelectric transducers.

Piezoelectric crystals also work in reverse way. Is ultrasound waves travelling through the air happen to collide with a piezoelectric crystal, they squeeze its surface very slightly, causing a brief burst of electricity to flow through it. So, if we wire up a piezoelectric crystal to an electric meter, we get an instant ultrasound detector.

Sonar (sound navigation and ranging)

Another popular use for ultrasonic is in ships, both for navigation and for locating objects underwater. Sound travels faster through water than through air, which is very helpful because light hardly travels through water at all. Most people know that whales can use low frequency sound to communicate through entire ocean. Submarines use a similar trick with a type of navigation called sonar.

fehmicon-2017

Highlights

9th July 2017 CME

  • Eminent International speakers, latest reviews,updates,amazing videos…..

Professor Biserika Funduk

  • 3D and 4D sonography in the evaluation of uterine anomalies
  • Endometriosis still an enigma – How to trace it by USG
  • Many more outstanding speakers are joining

Professar Asim Kurjak

  • Advances in the study of motoric and cognitive function of fetal brain KANET test
  • 3D & 4D sonography between scientific reality and scientific fantasy .

10th July 2017 Workshop

  • Unique USG Simulator first time for hands on for the participants
  • Only limited for 25 candidates

Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KENET)

A new scoring system for the assessment of fetal neurological status, Kurjak antwnatal neurodevelopmental test (KENET), has been recently published in several journals. Test is based on prenatal assessment of fatal behaviour by three-dimensional/four dimensional (3D/4D) sonography. Assessment of fatal behaviour gave a promising opportunity to understand the hidden function of the developmental pathway of the fetal central nervous system. This new test has been proposed by the Zagreb group based on several years of research

Preliminary results have confirmed the usefulmess of KANET in fetal behaviour assessment. The KANT test has the potential to detect and discriminate normal from borderline and abnormal fetal behaviour in normal and in high-risk pregnancies, which means that it could become a valuable diagnostic tool for fetal neurological assessment making it more applicable as the screening tool for prenatal neurological assessment in antenatal period itself.

The KANT should be performed in the 3rd trimester from 28th to 38th week of gestation. The assessment should last from 15 to 20 minutes, and the foetuses should be examined. When awake. New modified KANET test should be used with 10 parameters: The score for abnormal foetuses is 0 to 5, borderline score is from 6 to 13 and normal score is 14 or above.